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upon the opportunity to decry Dakin's solution be- cause it is not so irritating as liq. Labarraque, which many advocate. Such a line of argument is most unreasonable, to say the least. Another reproach made to antiseptics is their mild action, even in vitro, this being still more marked when in presence of protein bodies or serum, as occurs in wounds. The antiseptic, in the first place, becomes combined with the protein matter of the medium before it attacks the protein matter of the bacteria. Unquestionably, the antiseptic action varies greatly according to the individual differences of resistance of the bacteria present, the medium in which they are living and their numbers, so that should they be destroyed after prolonged action, Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy yet their spores are hardly ever killed. Subhmate, i :iooo, carbolic acid, 5:100 and iodine vapor have no action on the septic vibrio after a contact of forty-eight hours in vitro. Six hours, at 36° C, are required for a 2.50 per cent, solution of carbolic acid to kill the subtilis, bacteria grow in iodoform, and the strepto- coccus thrives in oxygen water. Antiseptics do not sterilize pus, Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy says Delbet. but for him carbolic acid is the most potent, calcium hypochlorite the least potent of antiseptics and he even goes Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy so far as to say that Dakin's solution favors microbic growth in pus. He maintains that calcium hypochlorite first acts on the proteins, the lecithins of pus, hence they transform a wound into a more favorable medium for bacterial growth, while at the same time Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy the solution kills the cell elements. He also maintains Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy that clinical researches are insufficient for the study of antiseptics, Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy while Carrel, Pozzi and a host of others who defend anti- septic methods uphold that clinical experimentation is the crucial test in surgery. Now, we know that Delbet affirms that pus per Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy sc is bactericidal. Pyoculture, in his opinion, is quite enough to prove the uselessness of antiseptics in wound treatment and he offers the following con- clusions : iodine has no action on bacterial flora and is useless ; either in irrigation or on dressings it does Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy not change the nature of the bacteria ; Hg bichloride solution I :iooo increases the number and vitality of the bacteria: powdered lactose is simply a deo- dorizer, this property being due to a change occur- ring in the odoriferous substances and not in the bacteria themselves : oxygen water irrigation does not even prevent the development of anaerobic or- ganisms : all antiseptics kill the cells without killing the bacteria. Air and light are the most powerful means at our disposal for destroying bacteria, and when employed, Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy a positive pyoculture will become negative or nit at the end of twenty-four hours. May 1 8, 1918.] MEDICINE AND SURGERY IN THE ARMY AND NAVY. 941 J lore a word of explanation becomes necessary. A pyoculture is positive when the culture is more abundant in the pus taken from a wound than in a broth culture, a fact which makes the prognosis serious and indicates surgical interference, l^yo- culture is nil when the bacteria do not develop in the jnis; it is negative when no bacteriolysis occurs in the [nis. In the Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy second case the surgeon should assist the organism in its efforts to fight the infection, in the latter he should abstain from any treatment as the patient himself can effectively deal with the process. I'yocultures may be elective for a given germ. Thus it may be negative for the staphylococcus and posi- tive for an anaerobic organism. In these circum- stances it is the latter indication which calls for sur- gical interference. Now, 1 greatly question if ]jyoculture is rigorously exact scicntdically and this view is held by Carrel, Wright, f'olicard and others. L'n((uestionably, the procedure is seducing in theory and its principle is founded on the exact principle of progressive im- munization of the organism, resulting from an in- crease in the bactericidal projjertics of both cells and plasma. All this doubt raised by Delbet is undoubt- edly very jjretty, and I ri;gret that space forbids a (kiailcd examination of his interesting experimental work, but in order to judge correctly the value of methods one must recall that the conditions of dis- infection of a woimd v;iry with the microbic flora present as well as the Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy general health and resistance of the subject. Therefore, one must always accept with due caution what takes place /;i vitro as com- ]>arcd to phenomena occurring in living tissues. 'I"(j conclude ; I Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy rcfere to an antise[)tic and cyto- phylactic method devised by Cruet and Rousseau which gives promise of good results. They tried to obtain a stable nonirritating, germicidal, and cylo- phylactic fluid which could be used warm. This they found in a solution of sodium or magnesium chloride in which ch.lorine was made to intervene secondarily. To prepare it, they began with a solution of cal- cimn hypochlorite which always contains free alcali Ca(OH)''. The calcium, formed by electrolytic de- coin])Osition of the liyiX)chlorite, is irritating to the tissues. Two hundretl and fifty grams of calcium chloride are diluted in water aiul then eighty grams NaCl, or 120 grams magnesium chloride in 500 c. c. water at 4- 50° C. are added. The homogenous, milky fluid thus obtained is poured into a ten liter container which is then filled with water at + 50° C. The li(|uor is sii)honed off and filtered on asbestos. To the hcatetl li(|uid thirty to forty grammes of lactic or phosphoric acid are added until a neutral or ver\- slightly acid reaction is obtained. The container is then closed in order to [irevcnt the freeing of hypo- chlorous acid and on cooling lactate or phosphate of lime, as the case mav be, becomes deixjsited. Cialis Cheap Online Pharmacy The li(;nid is then filtereil. 'I he lactic acid frees the hypochlorous acid which being unstable, gives rise to chlorine, water and oxygen. Slowly, and in a few days, the free chlorine tlissolved disapjiears and the reaction remains neu-