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about three inches from the eye. With a dia- phragm, and the condenser at more than four inches from the eye, a Cialis Cost At Walmart faint and unsatisfactory image was sometimes produced. This was the cause of much trouble until li-,e fact that there were two |x)ints at relinoscopy lation. By simultaneous image is smaller. which an image could be obtained was discovered. Without the diaphragm, one of these points, the more distant one, was eliminated. It was there- fore found to be an advantage to focus the con- denser with the diaphragm removed, and then, after replacing tlie latter, to continue the adjustments. The conditions under which the fainter image was produced, with the condenser at a greater distance from the eye, were not discovered. The fact is men- tioned, however, for the benelit of any one who may desire to rejjcat these observations. .■Ipf'omtiis for sul'f'orlinti the head. — The most difticult i>art of Cialis Cost At Walmart the technique had to do with the api)aratus for holding the head of the subject (xrr- fectly steadv while the pictures were being taken. .\ roil of metal. Iirmly supi)«>rleil horizontally and covered with a sheet of i)a]>er. was graspi-d by tiie teeth, and served to hold that part of the iiead steadv. .\ second horizontal ro<1 prcsseil against the forehead, and it was sometimes an advantage to have a vertical rod pressing on tlie right temple. The subject was seatetl in a comfortable fiosition. 92i BATES: IMAGES REFLECTED FROM CORNEA. IRIS, LEA'S, AND SCLERA. [Xew York Medical Journal. THE CORNEA. A thirty candle power lamp — simply an ordinary electric globe — is sufficient to form a very large image on the cornea. It can be placed within an inch or two of the eye, as the heat is not great enough to interfere with the experiment. The closer it is, the larger the image. A blue glass screen can be used, if desired, to lessen the discom- fort of the light, as the photographs of the image and the time of exposure will be the same whether the light is blue or white. The white light, however, is easier to focus than the blue. For absolute ac- curacy the light should be unmovable, but for dem- onstration this is not essential. Cialis Cost At Walmart The subject can hold the bulb in his hand, and can demonstrate that the image varies according to whether the eye is at rest, accommodating normally for near vision, or straining to see at a near or a distant point. The clearness of the image may vary according to whether the light is adjusted vertically, horizont- ally, or at an angle. When the left eye is used by the subject Cialis Cost At Walmart — and in all the experiments it was found to be the more convenient one for the purpose — the source of light is placed to the left of that eye, and as much as possible in front of it — at an angle of about forty-five degrees. For demonstration it is not necessary that the eye of the subject should be immovable. He can look into a plane mirror, or into a concave one, which enlarges the image, using the image itself as the point of fixation, and the dis- tance af which the eye focus can be altered by changing the distance of the mirror from the Cialis Cost At Walmart eye. The m.irror should be fastened to a rod which moves Cialis Cost At Walmart in a groove backward and forward, and the angle of the rod must be so adjusted that the angle of fixation does Cialis Cost At Walmart not change when the mirror ap- proaches the eye, or is withdrawn from it. The eye should be able to see the reflection by looking Cialis Cost At Walmart straight ahead, and the closer the reflection is to the edge of the mirror on the camera side the closer the camera can be brought to the line of fixation (Fig. 3)- Usually, not always, the Cialis Cost At Walmart retinoscope indicates that the eye is at rest — emmetropic — at the farthest dis- tance of the mirror from the eye at which the sub- Cialis Cost At Walmart ject is able to see the details of the reflection clearly. The greatest amount of accommodation is obtained at the nearest point at which the filament of the electric light can be seen distinctly. At this point the filament is distinctly smaller than when the eye is at rest. When the mirror is moved so far away that the image is no longer seen clearly, and the eye strains to see it more distinctly, the retinoscope in- dicates myopic refraction and the image again be- comes smaller than when the eye is at rest. When the mirror is brought so close to the eye that the image appears indistinct and the eye again strains to see it more distinctly, the retinoscope indicates less myopic refraction and the image becomes larger. If the strain to see it is great enough, the eye be- comes hypermetropic, and the image appears larger than when the eye is at rest. All these changes in the size and shape of the image can be correctly ob- served by the subject. The angle of the camera to the optic axis is not very important. Better pictures can be obtained, however, when the camera is directed as nearly as possible on a line with the optic axis. Satisfactory pictures are obtained when the Cialis Cost At Walmart angle is thirty, forty or even sixty degrees, but after passing beyond sixty the results are not at all good. Generally it is not possible to get an angle smaller than ten degrees. While the photographs are being taken a screen should be placed between the light and the mirror to prevent the formation of Cialis Cost At Walmart a. double image on the cornea. THE SIDE OF THE SCLERA. To obtain an image from the side of the sclera, a plane mirror was used in addition to the concave