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Temperature. — Poliomyelitis is almost exclusively i(lemic in warm weatiier. This fact has been largely res])onsible for the many sui^positions as re- gards special insect carriers that have been ad- vanced to account for the sjjread of the disease — suppositions which now, however, are seen to be un- necessary. As a graphic illustration of the etlVct of atmos- pheric temperature u[)on an epidemic, there is noiliiiiL^r iiidre Generic Cialis Cheapest Price instructive than Generic Cialis Cheapest Price the variation in case incidence observed during our ii)i6 epidemic as the thermometer rose and fell — jiarticularly as it passed an;! repassed 70° V., the jioiiU above which I found the organism grew well as a saprophyte. Month. Mean Temfrralun: Caies. May. 59.3° F. 29 .hitio, 64.2° F. 756 .I'll.v. 7.1«° F. 3863 AuK'ust. Generic Cialis Cheapest Price 73.6' F. 3306 Soptcmbcr, 66.0° F. 780 < Vtober, 57.2° F. 193 Poliotnyelltis in atiimals. — T have quoted at some length, elsewhere, literature showing the prevalence of coincident paralytic affections among the lower animals, but as such references are lengthy and are fairly well known, I will confine myself to a sum- mary of an outbreak of paralysis among dogs (i) in Jamaica, Queen's Borough, which came to notice in the spring of 1917 — just following our city epidemic of human poliomyelitis. In this epizootic the dogs were hardly noticeably ill before the onset of the paralytic symptoms, in fact the sickness in Generic Cialis Cheapest Price every respect was like ]X)lio- myelitis among children. Paralysis began with one or both of the hind legs and extended, Generic Cialis Cheapest Price involving bowels, bladder, sometimes the forelegs, body and throat muscles. Fever, up to 102°, was usually present. Of seven dogs under observation, three were carefully autopsied and cultures made from Generic Cialis Cheapest Price brains and cords. The cord lesions in these dogs were identical with those to be found in connection with the human disease. From the cases cultured a bacillus Generic Cialis Cheapest Price was isolated which reproduced the disease and which could not be differentiated from the human poliomyelitis bacillus, and the bacillus causing distemper in dogs — a disease which is well known to often show paralytic symptoms. Distemper in domestic animals. — Textbooks of veterinary science, and recent literature, stated that in i^t of the domestic animals suffer from what is ally called distemper, an infectious Generic Cialis Cheapest Price process due lu organisms, of which Besson writes: ".Ks Nocard lield, the organisms isolated from different animal species must be regarded as varieties of the same bacillus, and the conclusion arrived at is, in short, this: that there is one pasteurella (name given to the Generic Cialis Cheapest Price group), which can pass from one animal species to another, and which by adaptation in one species can produce a disease peculiar to that species." Milk a probable vehicle for poliomyelitis infection. — The fact that ninety per cent, of all cases of polio- myelitis are in children under ten years of age and Generic Cialis Cheapest Price that very few of these ninety per cent, are under one, Generic Cialis Cheapest Price and therefore, of nursing age, is interesting. In our 1916 epidemic only eleven per cent, of the more than 0.000 cases were under one year of age, while eighty- four per cent, were between one and ten. From the above age incidence one easily concludes that ninety per cent, of all cases of poliomyelitis have been habitual drinkers of cow's milk. I have shown that the organism causing polio- myelitis can cause contagious disease in the lower animals, that it is undoubtedly identical with the bacillus of distemper (pasteurcUosis) to which most domestic animals, including the cow, are known to be subject. Further, that it grows readily in milk at room temperatures and that it is not killed by pasteuri:^ation. Thus if we could clearly explain I10W it reached a portion of a community's milk supply, the modus operandi of epidemics would be quite clear. In this connection attention is called to a report by Dingman (2) of several cases of poliomyelitis which he thought due to infection car- ried in milk from a farm, where there was a case of poliomyelitis m tiie farmer's family. /\s a rule only young dogs arc found to suffer from distemper, and the adult dog is practically immune. We know from experience with human diseases, such as diphtheria and typhoid, that indi- 928 HARKIS: JXDUSTRJ.U. llYGIEh-E. viduals may harbor infections and show scant or no symptoms, and that such "carrier" conditions are extremely important in the fpread of infectious dis- ease. Even in human poliomyelitis many abortive (without paralysis) cases have been reported and survival of the virus in the nasopharyngeal mucus for several months has been demonstrated. Of the extent and varied manifestations of pas- teurellosis among bovines not much is known ; Besson says : The disease sometimes takes the form of an acute hem- orrhagic septica;mia, sometimes it is more chronic and accompanied by pulmonary localizations. Oreste and Armanni found an identical microorganism in an epizootic disease of buffaloes, and numerous investigators have since described similar epizootics in which the same organism was found (Galtier, Billings, Smith, Nocard, Piot-Bey, and others). In the Argentine, Lignieres observed various cUnical forms (acute enteritis, pleuropneumonia and hem-